This text is an introduction to the ‘culture of translation’ focusing the different approaches to the discipline as featured in French, English, German and Hispanic scholars. It also considers the question of functions and text typology, including the names of the pioneers of applicative studies and quality assessment, like Juliane House, and critical analysis , like John M. Dodds. The first thesis on dubbing and television are duly acknowledged (Paola Quaglino 1986), and also Isabella Poggi’s work on interjections, a burning passion that that has never left me. Thank you Vanessa Santoni for mentioning these heroic years of practice and explorations on Twitter (and photocopies of these books), way back when. Forty years.