The volume explores how comparative thematics can be approached via translational issues to show how Western and Eastern literatures and traditions may be defined, in terms of imagery and contrastive botanical lexicography, from English and into English. Examples take into account several Western languages (French, Spanish, Italian), ancient languages (Greek, Latin, Hebrew) and Creoles. The choice of a common theme highlights how theological ascendancy through the rose mystique from the Bible may be juxtaposed to the harmony principle of the ‘queen peony’ in poems. In terms of thematics, the biblical ‘rose’ was a translational ‘fraud’ and did not exist as such in the Aramaic Song of Songs. In terms of context, Sino-English translators were of Jewish descent and translated during the years of Nazism. Leading Sinologists suffered purges and accusations in UK and US, Chinese translators were conversely expatriates or diasporic members of the community.